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Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms or LUTS – Kofikrom Pharmacy


Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) include various symptoms involving urination. Examples include leaking urine, having sudden and frequent urges to pee, having a weak stream or feeling like you can’t empty your bladder. Symptoms can be signs of health issues that require treatment.

A. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) is a group of urinary symptoms triggered by an obstruction, abnormality, infection or irritation of the urethra, bladder, bladder neck, urinary sphincter and/or prostate (in men). LUTS can significantly reduce men’s quality of life and may point to serious pathology of the urogenital tract.

B. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are problems you notice with passing urine. LUTS may be present in around 50% of men aged over 18, but the prevalence depends on the definition of LUTS . Studies show that the prevalence of LUTS increases with age.  It has been reported that 30% of men over the age of 65 suffer from potentially troublesome LUTS. The prevalence of storage symptoms increases from 3% in men aged 40-44 years to about 40% in those aged 75 years or older.

C. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is a term used to describe an array of symptoms affecting the control and quality of micturition in the lower urinary tract. LUTS can affect both men and women, although they are particularly common presentation amongst men and increase with age. It is estimated that more than 50% of men over 50 years suffer from LUTS.


Risk factors associated with lower urinary tract symptoms include:

  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  • Thyroid dysfunction
  • Increased serum dihydrotestosterone levels.
  • Obesity.
  • Elevated blood glucose (Diabetes).
  • Fat and red meat intake.
  • Inflammation or infections, which increases the risk.


There are several causes of LUTS, as summarized in table 1:

  • In older men, LUTS are commonly caused by benign prostatic enlargement (BPE), which is most commonly due to the histological diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  • In females, LUTS are most commonly presents in those over 40 years old and commonly associated with a lower urinary tract infection
Table 1 – Causes of LUTS in males and females.


LUTS can be broadly categorized* into storage symptoms and voiding symptoms (Table 2):

  • Storage symptoms occur when the bladder should otherwise be storing urine, symptoms being urgencyfrequencynocturia, and urgency incontinence.

Voiding symptoms occur usually due to bladder outlet obstruction

making it more difficult to pass urine, therefore symptoms being hesitancyintermittencystrainingterminal dribbling and incomplete emptying

***Post-micturition symptoms is a term also increasingly being used to describe post-micturition dribble and incomplete emptying

Other Health effects of LUTS

a. LUTS can be a significant source of bother for some people. LUTS might make you reluctant to leave your house or socialize because of the inconvenience of needing to go to the toilet often or in a hurry.

LUTS can make you anxious and depressed and impact your personal relationships.

b. Sexual dysfunction, such as problems with erections or ejaculation, can accompany LUTS for some men.

Urinary retention can be painful and can lead to urinary tract infections and damage to the bladder or kidneys. LUTS can be a sign of a serious underlying condition, so it’s really important to see your doctor if you have any urinary symptoms.


Left untreated, progressive LUTS may increase the risk of infection and formation of renal and bladder calculi due to stagnation of urine.

Chronic obstruction may lead to bladder wall muscle hypertrophy or distention which can lead to overflow incontinence. Renal complications include renal failure and bilateral hydronephrosis.

Acute urinary retention may also occur in patients with progressive BPH.


What to do about LUTS

If you notice any lower urinary tract symptoms, you should see your doctor to discuss your symptoms, their impact on you and your treatment options. Your LUTS may progress and get worse without treatment, so seeing your doctor early is best.

If you have symptoms of acute urinary retention (i.e., pain, bladder distension or an inability to pass urine), you should seek immediate medical help as well. It may be necessary for a doctor to insert a catheter to drain your bladder and relieve you from both the pain and pressure. Click on Contact Us now to talk to our specialist at Kofikrom Pharmacy Limited!

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